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Rita Rani Chopra and Smruti Ranjan Behera
 
''Assessment of interstate dynamics of virtual water trade flows in primary crops production: Empirical evidence from India''
( 2021, Vol. 41 No.3 )
 
 
This study examines the interstate virtual water trade flows embodied in wheat and rice products across India's different states and union territories during 1994–2017. Using the extended Leontief's input-output model, this study links the net virtual water trade flows with water scarcity concentration in Indian states. The input-output analyses decompose the water consumption into domestic demand and exports by the states. Empirical results show that the northern states have massive wheat and rice production, leading to the highest virtual water outflows to western and southern water-scarce states in India. Further, results exhibit that virtual water trade has substantial pressure on water-scarce states to become water-saving states. However, we find that water endowments, unsustainable water flows, and diversity lead to water scarcity concentration in water-abundant states.
 
 
Keywords: Virtual water trade; Water footprint; Water consumption; Agriculture and Environment; Water efficiency; Input-Output analysis
JEL: Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics: General
Q5 - Environmental Economics: General
 
Manuscript Received : Mar 24 2021 Manuscript Accepted : Sep 17 2021

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